Latest Publications from KTH Database DiVA
This research addresses the design and negotiation of two kinds of assemblies that are similar in topology but fundamentally different in performance. Firstly, Topological Interlocking Assemblies (TA) are made of solid elements. Their overall structural integrity relies on each element being kinematical constraint by its neighbours. Secondly, Bell Kites, similar in topology but fundamentally different in performance these kites are made of clusters of tetrahedrons. While TA are heavy, massive and exposed to gravity Bell Kites are super light and dominantly driven by wind forces. These two instances formulate the opposing ends of a spectrum in which a new system, one that is capable of covering the full range of performance, is developed and re-conceptualized in architectural context. The research seeks design-innovation by scrutinizing systems that are not yet part of the architectural ecosystem. Mapping out their performative characteristics and developing their spatial and programmatic potential through conscious design moves explore the potential for architectural applications. The work presented in this paper is the result of a design research studio of the Architecture and Performative Design Class at the Staedelschule in Frankfurt.
Vibration problems are still the major constraint in modern machining processes that seek higher material removal rate, shorter process time, longer tool life and better product quality. Depending on the process, the weaker structure element can be the tool/tool holder, workpiece/fixture or both. When the tool/tool holder is the main source of vibration, the stability limit is determined in most cases by the ratio of length-to-diameter. Regenerative chatter is the most significant dynamic phenomenon generated through the interaction between machine tool and machining process. As a rule of thumb, the ratio between the tool’s overhang length and the tool’s diameter shouldn’t exceed 4 to maintain a stable machining process while using a conventional machining tool. While a longer tool overhang is needed for specific machining operations, vibration damping solutions are required to ensure a stable machining process. Vibration damping solutions include both active and passive damping solutions. In the passive damping solutions, damping medium such as viscoelastic material is used to transform the vibration strain energy into heat and thereby reduce vibration amplitude. For a typical cantilever tool, the highest oscillation displacement is near the anti-node regions of a vibration mode and the highest oscillation strain energy is concentrated at the node of a vibration mode. Viscoelastic materials have been successfully applied in these regions to exhibit their damping property. The node region of the 1st bending mode is at the joint interfaces where the cantilever tools are clamped. In this thesis, the general method that can be used to measure and characterize the joint interface stiffness and damping properties is developed and improved, joint interfaces’ importance at optimizing the dynamic stiffness of the joint interface is studied, and a novel advancing material that is designed to possess both high young’s modulus and high damping property is introduced. In the joint interface characterization model, a method that can measure the joint interface’s stiffness and damping over the full frequency range with only the assembled structure is presented. With the influence of a joint interface’s normal pressure on its stiffness and damping, an optimized joint interface normal pressure is selected for delivering a stable machining process against chatter with a boring bar setting at 6.5 times overhang length to diameter ratio in an internal turning process. The novel advancing material utilizes the carbon nano particles mixed in a metal matrix, and it can deliver both high damping property and high elastic stiffness to the mechanical structure.
Improving machining performance against regenerative tool chatter through adaptive normal pressure at the tool clamping interface
Chatter in machining process is one of the common failures of a production line. For a cantilever tool, such as a boring bar, the rule of thumb requires the overhang length of the tool to be less than 4 times the diameter. The reason is because longer overhang will induce severe tool vibration in the form of chatter during machining. When a longer overhang than 4 times diameter is necessary for performing special machining operations, damping methods are needed to suppress tool chatter. One of the methods is the constrained layer damping method. Materials, such viscoelastic material, are applied in the vibration node regions of the structure to absorb the concentrated vibration strain energy and transform the mechanical energy to heat. With a cantilever tool clamped in a tool holder, the clamping interface is usually the vibration node region. The friction in the joint interface with low normal pressure became another source of damping and can be used for tool chatter suppression in mechanical structures. Joint interfaces are well known to possess normal pressure dependent stiffness and damping. The normal pressure’s effect on the structures frequency response function had been observed by H. Åkesson  et al, and L.Mi  et al. However, the direct effect of the joint interface normal pressure on machining process stability hasn’t been investigated. In this paper, a cantilever tool with 6.5 overhang length to diameter ratio is investigated. The direct effect of the tool clamping interface’s normal pressure on the machining process stability is studied. Three different levels of clamping normal pressure are tested with an internal turning process. The machining results indicate another adaptable solution on shop floor for suppressing tool chatter.
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) allows for the expansion of a swollen brain outside the skull and has the potential to reduce intracranial pressure. However, the stretching of axons may contribute to an unfavorable outcome in patients treated with DC. In this study, we present a method for quantifying and visualizing axonal fiber deformation during both the pre-craniectomy and post-craniectomy periods to provide more insight into the mechanical effects of this treatment on axonal fibers. The deformation of the brain tissue in the form of a Lagrangian finite strain tensor for the entire brain was obtained by a non-linear image registration method based on the CT scanning data sets of the patient. Axonal fiber tracts were extracted from diffusion-weighted images. Based on the calculated brain tissue strain tensor and the observed axonal fiber tracts, the deformation of axonal fiber tracts in the form of a first principal strain, axonal strain and axonal shear strain were quantified. The greatest axonal fiber displacement was predominantly located in the treated region of the craniectomy, accompanied by a large axonal deformation close to the skull edge of the craniectomy. The distortion (stretching or shearing) of axonal fibers in the treated area of the craniectomy may influence the axonal fibers in such a way that neurochemical events are disrupted. A quantitative model may clarify some of the potential problems with this treatment.
Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (mu g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure.