Analysis of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Wind Power Plants
Time: Thu 2020-05-14 10.00
Subject area: Electrical Engineering
Doctoral student: Muhammad Taha Ali , Elkraftteknik, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Power System Operation and Control
Opponent: Professor Massimo Bongiorno, Department of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Supervisor: Professor Mehrdad Ghandari, Elkraftteknik
The modern power system is moving towards the high integration of renewable energy sources at a fast pace. The integration of wind power in the power system raises many challenges along with the benefits. One of the recent challenges is the sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) that occurs in doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms. This oscillation is caused by sub-synchronous control interaction (SSCI). The SSCI condition occurs when the DFIG-based wind farm is radially connected to a series compensated transmission line. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and study the circumstances and causes of SSCI, and to develop the techniques that could mitigate this condition from the system. A mathematical model of DFIG-based power system is designed and an eigenvalue analysis is performed. The eigenvalue analysis shows that out of many factors, the level of series compensation play major role in inflicting SSCI in the system. The eigenvalue sensitivity analysis is performed on all the controller parameters of DFIG converters. It is shown that the proportional parameter of the rotor-side converter (RSC) is the most sensitive parameters and the stability of the system is highly dependent on its value. Moreover, the participation factors of the system are also computed to understand the phenomenon better. SSCI is also explained through the internal impedance of induction generator, as seen from the stator terminal. It is shown that the presence of RSC controller enables the occurrence of SSCI, by increasing the negative resistance of the rotor, and its proportional parameters adds up to the negative resistance.
Two mitigation techniques are presented in this thesis. In the first technique a power oscillation damper (POD) is designed and tuned. The proper placement of a tuned POD in the DFIG converter can eliminate the SSCI from the system using a local signal. In the second technique, the boomerang effect of the most sensitive control parameter is presented and it is proposed that the proper selection of control parameters can eliminate the risk of SSCI from the system, even for higher series compensation levels. Along with linearized and non-linear simulations, the sensitivity analysis and the mitigation of SSCI through proper selection of control parameters is validated experimentally using an actual 7.5 kW DFIG system. The analysis of SSCI is also carried out in a multi-machine two-area system and the mitigation techniques are successfully implemented. The influence of synchronous generator on SSCI is also studied, and the mitigation of SSCI using PSS in the synchronous generator is presented. It is shown that by implementing all the mitigation techniques simultaneously, the multi-machine systems can be made immune to SSCI for any realistic level of series compensation.