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Public Transport Policy, Users' Needs, and Multimodal Travel Experience

Free Public Transport in Tallinn: (with Oded Cats, Triin Reimal and Jonas Elliasson)

Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia with approximately 400 000 inhabitants. From 2013 January 1st the city implemented free public transport for its residents. This decision made Tallinn as the largest city in the world that is offering free public transport services for all of its inhabitants.

As the policy of free public transport is rarely introduced in any major cities in the world, this decision open a unique opportunity to systematically analyse the impacts of such policy and have a full-scale experiment on how people react to that. This particular project aims to analyse how the policy would change the individual travel patterns and the transport system performance within the city.

In evaluating the impacts of such policy measure the studies of before and after were carried out. This is done by analyzing and comparing public transport and traffic related data from before and after the introduction of the particular policy measure. This includes analysis of performance indices, such as speed, service reliability and time punctuality and passenger loads. The spatial distribution of these effects will also be analysed based on GIS information provided.

Empirical Evidence from a Fare-Free Scheme in Tallinn, Estonia

The prospects of free-fare public transport: Evidence from Tallinn


METPEX: A Measurement Tool to Determine the Quality of the Passenger Experience (FP7 Project,

European cities increasingly face problems caused by transport and traffic. Efficient and effective urban transport can significantly contribute to achieving objectives in a wide range of policy domains. In order to improve transport services, vehicle design and transport infrastructure (including pedestrian and cycle routes and stations) it is important to know how existing services are perceived by passengers and their current and future expectations in order that the journeys be faster, more convenient, safer, comfortable and enjoyable.

Specific objectives of METPEX include:

  • Development of an integrated approach to the measurement of the whole journey passenger experience that takes into account human (physiological, perceptual, cognitive, sensory and affective) socio- economic, cultural, geographic and environmental factors.  
  • Assessment of the costs of ‘inaccessible transport’ for different sectors of society (such as those from low income groups, rural communities, the elderly, disabled and those with lower levels of literacy). 
  • Assessment of the extent to which the measurement of the passenger experience can be used to drive innovation and attention to transport quality from the customer’s perspective in the transport industry. 
  • Evaluation of the passengers experience from different regions of Europe and to support the integration of regional transport networks into a European transport network 
  • Facilitation of the harmonization of travel behaviour research and analysis across European Union Member States.

METPEX current tools can be accessed at: (in 9 different languages)

SatNav app is downloadable at itunes store and google play

And the on-line web survey can accessed in here

Implementing a Behavioural Pilot Survey for the Stage-based Study of the whole Journey Traveller Experience

Identification of User Requirements Concerning the Definition of Variables to be Measured by the Metpex Tool

Report on survey and data collection processes at each location

Satisfaction with intermodal trips in Stockholm: How do service attributes influence satisfaction with the main mode and with the journeyas a whole?

Measuring quality across the whole journey

Designing Mobility and Transport Services: Developing traveller experience tools

Exploring key determinants of travel satisfaction for multi-modal trips by different traveler groups

Deploying traditional and smartphone app survey methods in measuring door-to-door travel satisfaction in eight European cities

Findings from measuring door-to-door travellers’ travel satisfaction with traditional and smartphone app survey methods in eight European cities

Do accessibility, vulnerability, opportunity, and travel characteristics have uniform impacts on the traveler’s experience?

How does travel satisfaction sum up? An exploratory analysis in decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips

Measuring Mobility and Transport Services: The METPEX Project


The analysis of time and space variability of the determinants of satisfaction for public transport users in Sweden: (with Roberto Abenoza and Oded Cats)

Due to the recent changes in the public transport provision regulations, traveller’s satisfaction has become an important indicator for the Swedish Transport Authorities in evaluating the performance of the existing public transport provisions. It is becoming more important than ever for the Swedish transport stakeholders to provide the public transport service, and supporting policies that meet travellers’ needs and expectations. However, the individual travel satisfactions varies overtime and Sweden is a rather large and spacious country, which has a very different climate, spatial and land-use patterns, social and behavioural trends and regional public transport policies. Thus, it is of outermost importance to understand how the public transport users’ travel satisfaction indicators vary between time and geographical places. This will helps us to understand the reasons and behavioural interactions that underlie one’s travel satisfaction. The results of this study will help the regional public transport providers and public transport authorities such as Landstingen (Regional administrative areas) or Kommuner (Municipalities) to provide a service that better suit with their customer needs and design more efficient satisfaction-wise investments in the future.

Temporal and spatial variability of determinants of satisfaction with public transport in Sweden

Evolution of Satisfaction with Public Transport and Its Determinants in Sweden: Identifying Priority Areas

Travel satisfaction with public transport: Determinants, user classes, regional disparities and their evolution

Individual, travel and bus stop characteristics influencing travelers’ safety perceptions

What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?

User experiences and perceptions of women-only transport services in Mexico

Hierarchy of traveler needs


Public Transport Accessibility and Equality : (with Isak Rubensson and Oded Cats)

Is Flat Fare Fair? Equity Impact of Fare Scheme Change

Accessibility and Equity Analysis in Stockholm


Estimating travel patterns and the impacts of fare schemes for different user groups in Stockholm based on smartcard data (with Erik Jenelius, Oded Cats, and Isak Rubensson)


The pricing and fare collection design, with Movingo ticket system: (with Ilyas Alhassan, a.o.)

Revisiting public transport service delivery: Exploring commuters’ attitudes towards fare collection and verification systems