The Center for X-Rays in Swedish Materials Science located in Sweden and the Swedish Materials Science beamline situated at the PETRA III synchrotron in Germany together comprise the PETRA III Swedish Node – an ultra high energy beamline with two measurement stations specially designed for materials science research experiments.
The background to the PETRA III Swedish Node was a Memorandum of Understanding between the Swedish and German governments to cooperate in infrastructure development and research . This understanding was mutually agreed in 2009 and in 2010 the Röntgen-Ångström Cluster (RÅC) was established to implement this agreement.
When assessing how to implement this agreement, a key consideration for Sweden was ensuring complementarity to the MAX IV and ESS research infrastructures that were also being planned at that time [1, 2]. Such infrastructure complementary matched the measurement needs of materials science researchers [1, 2].
The Swedish materials science research community was actively engaged throughout this project , especially via a number of workshops:
- October 2010. "Swedish beamline kick-off" workshop. Stockholm.
- February 2011. Formal signing of the Memorandum of Understanding at Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg.
- August 2011. "High energy materials science" workshop. DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
- June 2012. Scientific workshop to review the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for a Swedish Materials Science beamline at PETRA III. Sigtuna.
- July 2013. Technical Design Report (TDR) workshop concerning Swedish Materials Science beamline at PETRA III.
Funding and construction
Sweden decided to finance the building and operation of a Swedish Materials Science beamline at PETRA III, with The Swedish Research Council (VR) representing the Swedish government [3, 4].
Sweden also saw the importance of establishing a Swedish host for the future Swedish Materials Science beamline at PETRA III. VR therefore made a call for a host university. KTH and LiU applied as a consortium -the Center for X-Rays in Swedish Materials Science.
Construction of the hall where the Swedish Material Science beamline was proceeding and instrumentation began to be installed. Therefore, in November 2017, a workshop was held at DESY to raise awareness that the dreams of 2009 were becoming a reality for Swedish materials researchers. The tangibility of these dreams was then demonstrated in September 2018 when the first diffraction patterns were detected at the Swedish Materials Science beamline.
In December 2018, the Center for X-Rays in Swedish Material Science consortium was awarded the privilege of hosting the Swedish Materials Science beamline and given the responsibility of governing the Swedish beamline together with DESY as well as safeguarding Swedish interests at PETRA III.
Rapid uptake in use of the Swedish beamline
The Swedish beamline become operational for Swedish researchers during 2019.
From 2019, Swedish researchers have privileged access to this Swedish materials science beamline as well as privileged access to all beamlines at PETRA III that are operated by Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) .
The Swedish Material Science beamline became the most sought after beamline at PETRA III by Swedish researchers in 2019 , a position sustained since 2020 .
In 2020, the PETRA III Swedish Node also became listed in The Swedish Research Council's inventory of research infrastructures that are of national interest to Sweden.
Measurements at the Swedish beamline are a key aspect of leading research, which is now beginning to be published in high ranking journals.
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of the Federal Republic of Germany. “Cooperation in materials research and structural biology using neutron and synchrotron radiation” This collaboration was given the name "Röntgen-Angstrom Cluster [RÅC]”. Regeringskansliet. Dnr U2009/447/F. 15 June 2009.
- Interview. Professor Ulf Karlsson. History of the Swedish material science beamline. KTH. 22 September 2020.
- Decision to sign the Memorandum of Understanding “Realization of the high energy materials science beamline at the storage ring PETRA III, DESY [Hamburg]” to the effect that Sweden should finance the construction and operations of a Swedish Material Science beamline, where that Swedish Material Science beamline was described more fully in Dnr 813-2011-23. The official signing ceremony was held 25 February 2011. The Swedish Research Council. GD-2011-17. 22 February 2011.
- Decision to enter into a Cooperation Agreement on the Construction phase of the Swedish Materials Science beamline at PETRA Ill situated at the port P21 [SMS]. The Swedish Research Council. GD-2018-75. 4 April 2018.
- Decision to enter into a contractual agreement [Dnr 823-2010-06911] with DESY for operations of the Swedish Material Science beamline at PETRA III. The Swedish Research Council. GD-2019-124. 17 June 2019.
- Academic hosting of the Swedish Materials Science Beamline at PETRA III, Hamburg, Germany. 2019 Organisational Report to The Swedish Research Council concerning grant 2018-6942. The Center for X-Rays in Swedish Material Science. April 2020.
- Academic hosting of the Swedish Materials Science Beamline at PETRA III, Hamburg, Germany. 2020 Organisational Report to The Swedish Research Council concerning grant 2018-6942. The Center for X-Rays in Swedish Material Science. April 2021.