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CM2019 Ultrasound 7.5 credits

The course deals with basic physical principles, instrumental arrangements and biomedical applications of ultrasound. In particular, medical diagnostics and therapy with ultrasound are treated in the course.

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For course offering

Autumn 2024 Start 26 Aug 2024 programme students

Application code


Headings with content from the Course syllabus CM2019 (Autumn 2023–) are denoted with an asterisk ( )

Content and learning outcomes

Course contents

Lecture sessions in the course are dedicated to cover following topics:

•Propagation of the acoustic waves through different media: gas, liquids, solids; at normal and oblique incident. Specific characteristic parameters and governing equations.

•Design of ultrasound transducers and their key elements.

•Biological effects of ultrasound: harmonic imaging, acoustic streaming, cavitation, sonoporation.

•Application of ultrasound in clinical practice. Visualization and quantification of the diagnostic data by Doppler, speckle tracking, 3D-4D ultrasound and shear wave elastography.

•Basic principles and resent advancements in ultrasound contrast agents: from manufacturing, through testing to visualization.

•Ultrasound safety

•Standards for digital image acquisition, archiving and communication. Clinical practice and risk management.

Laboratory works in a course are dedicated to provide hands on experience on:

•Basic principles of ultrasound physics and discussion on propagation of the acoustical waves in different mediums and accompanied effects.

•Calibration and performance testing of the clinical ultrasound.

•Clinical protocol in handling patients

•Basic principals of ultrasound Lab-on-chip to assess the biological effect of ultrasound on living cells 

Intended learning outcomes

After the course is successfully completed, student will acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge and will be able to:

1.Discuss and perform calculations related to propagation of the acoustical waves in homogeneous media, i.e. gasses, liquids or solids; and in complex media, i.e. biological tissue.

2.Based on the medical requirements design and optimize characteristics of the ultrasound transducer and emitted acoustic wave.

3.Discuss the fundamental physical principles, biological effects and safety issues related to the application of ultrasound in connection with harmonic imaging, acoustic streaming, cavitation and sonoporation; and exemplify different practical applications of each process.

4.Discuss clinically approved and routinely used ultrasound techniques such as Doppler, speckle tracking and more recent advanced modalities such as 4D ultrasound, shear wave elastography and contrast enhanced ultrasound.

5.Identify strengths and weaknesses of the modalities for evaluation of various tissue types such as cardiac, vascular and fetus.

Literature and preparations

Specific prerequisites

Bachelor's degree in engineering, natural or medical sciences.  English B/6

Recommended prerequisites

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Examination and completion

If the course is discontinued, students may request to be examined during the following two academic years.

Grading scale

A, B, C, D, E, FX, F


  • LAB1 - Laboratory work, 4.0 credits, grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F
  • PRO1 - Project work, 2.0 credits, grading scale: P, F
  • PRO2 - Project work, 1.5 credits, grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Based on recommendation from KTH’s coordinator for disabilities, the examiner will decide how to adapt an examination for students with documented disability.

The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

In the course continuous examination scheme is applied.

The examination is split into two parts: the first part 4 ECTS of the grade corresponds to laboratory sessions the second 2 ECTS related to the quizzes and third part 1,5 ECTS given for the final presentation .

Part 1 (4ECTS): Each laboratory sessions consisted of preparatory assignment, lab session, individual report and oral defense. Grades A, B, C, D, E, Fx, F are applied.

Part 2 (2ECTS): After each lecture students are asked to submit answers on short quizz that aims to assess the key concepts discussed on the lecture. Grades P/F are applied.

Part 3 (1,5ECTS): In the end of the course students are asked to present the reflection on resent advanced topic in ultrasound field of their choice. Grades A, B, C, D, E, Fx, F are applied.

Opportunity to complete the requirements via supplementary examination

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Opportunity to raise an approved grade via renewed examination

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Ethical approach

  • All members of a group are responsible for the group's work.
  • In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used.
  • In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.

Further information

Course room in Canvas

Registered students find further information about the implementation of the course in the course room in Canvas. A link to the course room can be found under the tab Studies in the Personal menu at the start of the course.

Offered by

Main field of study

Medical Engineering, Technology and Health

Education cycle

Second cycle

Add-on studies

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Dmitry Grishenkov (