AH2922 Map Projections and Reference Systems 9.0 credits

Kartprojektioner och referenssystem

Concepts of map projections. Definition and transformation of different types of geodetic reference systems.

Offering and execution

Course offering missing for current semester as well as for previous and coming semesters

Course information

Content and learning outcomes

Course contents *

  • Geomtery of the reference ellipsoid
  • Coordinate systems on the ellipsoid
  • Computation of geodetic lines
  • Classification of map projections. 
  • General projection theory
  • Deformation characteristics.
  • Gauss-Krüger projection and UTM. Azimuthal projections
  • Gravity, geoid and height systems
  • Astrogeodetic triangulation networks
  • Geodetic astronomy: celestial coordinates, concept of time and astronomical positioning
  • Earth rotation: polar motion, precession and nutation
  • Geodynamics: tectonics, postglacial rebound and earth tide
  • Celestial vs terrestrial reference systems (frames)
  • Existing reference frames: ITRF, WGS 84, EUREF 89 and Swedish geodetic networks
  • Least squares estimation of Helmert transformation parameters

Intended learning outcomes *

After completing this course, students should 

  • understand coordinate systems used in geodesy and navigation
  • be able to compute geodetic lines on the reference ellipsoid
  • have insights on different types of map projections and their characteristics
  • understand how different geodetic reference systems are constructed
  • know how to make transformation among different reference systems

Course Disposition

Lectures: 36h


Literature and preparations

Specific prerequisites *

  • A completed Bachelor of Science in Engineering or 180 credits academic studies in the field of Technical Science, Economics or Planning and documented proficiency in English corresponding to English B.

  • AH1816 Geodetic Surveying and AH2921 Adjustment theory or equivalent

Recommended prerequisites

No information inserted


No information inserted


Fan (2008). Theoretical Geodesy. KTH.

Examination and completion

Grading scale *

A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Examination *

  • LAB1 - Laboratory work, 4.0 credits, Grading scale: P, F
  • TEN1 - Examination, 5.0 credits, Grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Based on recommendation from KTH’s coordinator for disabilities, the examiner will decide how to adapt an examination for students with documented disability.

The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

Written exam (TEN1; 5c)

Approved laboration (LAB1;  4c)

Opportunity to complete the requirements via supplementary examination

No information inserted

Opportunity to raise an approved grade via renewed examination

No information inserted


Huaan Fan

Further information

Course web

Further information about the course can be found on the Course web at the link below. Information on the Course web will later be moved to this site.

Course web AH2922

Offered by

ABE/Geodesy and Satellite Positioning

Main field of study *

No information inserted

Education cycle *

Second cycle

Add-on studies

AH2914 Physical geodesy

AH2923 Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Ethical approach *

  • All members of a group are responsible for the group's work.
  • In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used.
  • In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.