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ED2200 Energy and Fusion Research 6.0 credits

In earlier days, the question "For how long will the fossil fuels last?" was often raised, but now we rather ask "When can we free ourselves from the dependence on fossil fuels?".
In this course, a background is given to the problems concerning future energy provision that we are realizing today and that will become critical towards the mid-century unless new energy sources are developed. We will also discuss the alternative energy sources that are known today.
Within fusion research, the goal is to produce a sustainable energy source for large scale generation of electricity. By using the surplus energy that is released when light atomic nuclei merge (fusion), the final benefit comes from an endurable and environmentally friendly "Sun on earth". Since the early 1960's, the Alfven Laboratory at KTH has been part of the international collaboration in this field.
This introductory course will provide the physical and technological basics and give a picture of the state of present day fusion research. We may now say, with some confidence, that fusion power will indeed be realized. In the course, different solutions to this "the greatest technological challenge ever pursued by man" will be presented.

About course offering

For course offering

Spring 2025 TEFRM/CLGYM programme students

Target group

Open for all master programmes as long as it can be included in your programme.

Part of programme

Master of Science in Engineering and in Education, åk 4, MAFY, Conditionally Elective

Master of Science in Engineering and in Education, åk 5, MAFY, Conditionally Elective

Master's Programme, Electromagnetics, Fusion and Space Engineering, åk 1, PLA, Mandatory

Master's Programme, Energy Innovation, åk 1, RENE, Recommended


P4 (6.0 hp)


17 Mar 2025
2 Jun 2025

Pace of study


Form of study

Normal Daytime

Language of instruction


Course location

KTH Campus

Number of places

Places are not limited

Planned modular schedule


For course offering

Spring 2025 TEFRM/CLGYM programme students

Application code



For course offering

Spring 2025 TEFRM/CLGYM programme students


Per Brunsell (


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Course coordinator

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Headings with content from the Course syllabus ED2200 (Spring 2022–) are denoted with an asterisk ( )

Content and learning outcomes

Course contents

The course provides an introduction to the international energy problems and to fusion research. In particular, the following topics are treated:

The energy demand. Different energy sources. Environment and energy. Possible future energy scenarios. The potential of fusion energy.

Brief history of fusion research. The research at KTH and internationally.

The Lawson criterion. The fusion plasma and its quality parameters.

Theoretical plasma models.

Equilibrium. Stability. Transport.

The tokamak today and as a reactor.

Alternative fusion. Inertial confinement.

The components of a reactor.

Safety and environmental problems.

Demonstration of the experimental device Extrap T2R at the Alfvén Lab, KTH.

Intended learning outcomes

The main objective of this course is to present and discuss fusion energy in the perspective of future national and global energy scenarios, as well as to provide basic knowledge in fusion physics.

The student should be able to

  • give an overview of the national and global energy production within a sustainable perspective
  • discuss the need for fusion energy for future production of electricity
  • describe the principles for for magnetic confinement, both at particle- and at macroscopic level
  • give an account of the most important plasma models
  • solve simpler problems within the fusion plasma physics fields of equilibrium, stability and transport
  • describe the basic plasma parameters and correspon-ding diagnostic techniques for fusion plasmas
  • explain the function of different plasma heating techniques
  • describe the components of a fusion reactor, and their functions
  • give an account of alternative confinement schemes and the planned route to a reactor

Literature and preparations

Specific prerequisites

The upper secondary course English B/6.

Documented knowledge in calculus in several variables, 7,5 credits corresponding to completed course SF1626.

Documented knowledge in electromagnetism and waves, 7,5 credits corresponding to completed course SK1110.

Recommended prerequisites

The course EF2200 Plasma Physics is recommended, however not necessary.


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Examination and completion

If the course is discontinued, students may request to be examined during the following two academic years.

Grading scale

P, F


  • PRO1 - Project, 1.5 credits, grading scale: P, F
  • ÖVN1 - Assignments, 4.5 credits, grading scale: P, F

Based on recommendation from KTH’s coordinator for disabilities, the examiner will decide how to adapt an examination for students with documented disability.

The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

Other requirements for final grade

Continual examination, consisting of home assignments (4.5 credits) and group work in class (1.5 credits). There is no final exam.

Opportunity to complete the requirements via supplementary examination

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Opportunity to raise an approved grade via renewed examination

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Ethical approach

  • All members of a group are responsible for the group's work.
  • In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used.
  • In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.

Further information

Course room in Canvas

Registered students find further information about the implementation of the course in the course room in Canvas. A link to the course room can be found under the tab Studies in the Personal menu at the start of the course.

Offered by

Main field of study

Electrical Engineering, Engineering Physics, Physics

Education cycle

Second cycle

Add-on studies

No information inserted


Per Brunsell (

Supplementary information

The course is learning oriented, with lectures using focus problems and class exercises partially carried out as group work.

In this course, the EECS code of honor applies, see: