Skip to main content
Till KTH:s startsida Till KTH:s startsida

DD2448 Foundations of Cryptography 7.5 credits

Advanced course in computer science giving an introduction to modern cryptography.

Choose semester and course offering

Choose semester and course offering to see current information and more about the course, such as course syllabus, study period, and application information.


For course offering

Spring 2025 krypto25 programme students

Application code


Headings with content from the Course syllabus DD2448 (Spring 2024–) are denoted with an asterisk ( )

Content and learning outcomes

Course contents

Classic cryptosystems. What does secure encryption mean? Background in information theory, entropy. Symmetric encryption algorithms such as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Open key systems for encryption and digital signatures e.g. RSA, ElGamal and Schnorr signatures. Cryptographically secure hash functions in theory and practice (SHA). Properties and examples of pseudo-random number generators. Connections to complexity theory.

Intended learning outcomes

After passing the course, the student shall be able to

  • discuss the following basic concepts in cryptography: symmetric and asymmetric encryption, digital signatures, cryptographic hash functions, and strong pseudo-random number generator
  • give examples of the above concepts
  • perform simple own analyzes of cryptographic constructions such as cryptographic systems and cryptographic protocols
  • determine the reliability of analyzes of cryptographic constructions such as cryptographic systems and cryptographic protocols
  • summarize the content of technical articles on cryptography and cryptographic protocols

in order to be able to work with analysis and development of cryptographic protocols and systems.

Literature and preparations

Specific prerequisites

Knowledge of algorithms and complexity, 7.5 credits, equivalent to completed course DD2350 / DD2352.

Knowledge of discrete mathematics, 7.5 credits, equivalent to completed course SF1610 / SF1630 / SF1662 / SF1679 / SF1688.

Knowledge in probability theory and statistics, 6 credits, equivalent to completed course SF1912 / SF1914 / SF1915 / SF1916 / SF1920 / SF1921 / SF1922 / SF1923 / SF1924.

Knowledge of algebra and geometry, 7.5 credits, equivalent to completed course SF1624 / SF1672.

Knowledge in one-variable calculus, 7.5 credits, equivalent to completed course SF1625 / SF1673.

Course from Upper Secondary School equivalent to the Swedish upper secondary course English B/6.

Recommended prerequisites

Knowledge equivalent to either one of the courses DD1352 Algorithms, Data Structures and Complexity or DD2354 Algorithms and Complexity and knowledge of probability theory, mathematics and algorithm theory acquired in the mandatory courses of the D or F program.


No information inserted


No information inserted

Examination and completion

If the course is discontinued, students may request to be examined during the following two academic years.

Grading scale

A, B, C, D, E, FX, F


  • GRU1 - Group work, 2.5 credits, grading scale: P, F
  • INDA - Individual home assignment, 5.0 credits, grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Based on recommendation from KTH’s coordinator for disabilities, the examiner will decide how to adapt an examination for students with documented disability.

The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

GRU1 is an investigative group work on a topic described in scientific articles and / or proposed or established standards. It is assessed through a written report and / or oral presentation.

INDA is a set of problems that are solved individually and assessed both in writing and orally.

Opportunity to complete the requirements via supplementary examination

No information inserted

Opportunity to raise an approved grade via renewed examination

In this course there is no opportunity to raise an already approved grade.


Ethical approach

  • All members of a group are responsible for the group's work.
  • In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used.
  • In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.

Further information

Course room in Canvas

Registered students find further information about the implementation of the course in the course room in Canvas. A link to the course room can be found under the tab Studies in the Personal menu at the start of the course.

Offered by

Main field of study

Computer Science and Engineering

Education cycle

Second cycle

Add-on studies

Please discuss with the instructor.


Douglas Wikström, tel: 790 8138, e-post:

Transitional regulations

The expired module ÖVN1 has been replaced by GRU1 and INDA.

Supplementary information

The course is held in English if the students wish so.

You cannot count both DD2448 and DD2449 in your exam, since DD2448 has replaced DD2449.

In this course, the EECS code of honor applies, see: