EL2450 Hybrid and Embedded Control Systems 7.5 credits

Hybrida och inbyggda reglersystem

Hybrid and Embedded Control Systems is a course on analysis, design and implementation of control algorithms in networked embedded and autonomous systems. Sensor, actuator and computer nodes are connected over a communication network in such control systems, which are found in emerging applications in robotics and autonomous systems, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, industrial control, mobile communication, power systems, smart buildings, transportation system etc.

  • Education cycle

    Second cycle
  • Main field of study

    Electrical Engineering
  • Grading scale

    A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Course offerings

Spring 19 for programme students

Spring 20 for programme students

Intended learning outcomes

After the course the student should be able to describe and explain analysis- and design methods for embedded and network based control systems.

In particular, the student shall be able to:

  • Translate analogue controllers into digital implementations, and propose computer code for the implementations.
  • Analyze basic properties (such as stability, controllability, observability etc) for sampled systems.
  • Analyze limitations in embedded control systems, such as quantization and communication limitations.
  • Analyze basic properties of event-triggered control systems.
  • Perform simple dynamic modelling of real time systems.
  • Motivate hybrid systems as a general modelling tool for embedded systems.
  • Analyze dynamic properties of hybrid systems.
  • Verify design specifications in hybrid systems.
  • Account for applications of the course content within several technical areas.

Course main content

Time triggered control, modelling and analysis of sampled systems, computer implementation of control systems, properties and limitations of implementation platforms, event triggered control, real time operating systems, scheduling, computational modelling, hybrid control: models, dynamic properties, verification.


Lectures and Exercises, written exam. See also


For single course students: 120 credits and documented proficiency in English B or equivalent.

Recommended prerequisites

Automatic Control, Basic Course, (EL1000 Reglerteknik allmän kurs) or permission by the coordinator.


Information about course literature is announced on the course homepage.


  • HWK1 - Homework, 0.5, grading scale: P, F
  • HWK2 - Homework, 0.5, grading scale: P, F
  • HWK3 - Homework, 1.0, grading scale: P, F
  • TENA - Examination, 5.5, grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Offered by

EECS/Intelligent Systems


Dimos Dimarogonas


Dimos Dimarogonas <dimos@kth.se>

Supplementary information

Replaces 2E1245

Add-on studies

EL2420 Project Course in Automatic Control,

EL201X Masters Degree Project Automatic Control


Course syllabus valid from: Spring 2019.
Examination information valid from: Spring 2019.