EL2450 Hybrid and Embedded Control Systems 7.5 credits

Hybrida och inbyggda reglersystem

Hybrid and Embedded Control Systems is a course on analysis, design and implementation of control algorithms in networked embedded and autonomous systems. Sensor, actuator and computer nodes are connected over a communication network in such control systems, which are found in emerging applications in robotics and autonomous systems, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, industrial control, mobile communication, power systems, smart buildings, transportation system etc.

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Course information

Content and learning outcomes

Course contents *

Time triggered control, modelling and analysis of sampled systems, computer implementation of control systems, properties and limitations of implementation platforms, event triggered control, real time operating systems, scheduling, computational modelling, hybrid control: models, dynamic properties, verification.

Intended learning outcomes *

After the course the student should be able to describe and explain analysis- and design methods for embedded and network based control systems.

In particular, the student shall be able to:

  • Translate analogue controllers into digital implementations, and propose computer code for the implementations.
  • Analyze basic properties (such as stability, controllability, observability etc) for sampled systems.
  • Analyze limitations in embedded control systems, such as quantization and communication limitations.
  • Analyze basic properties of event-triggered control systems.
  • Perform simple dynamic modelling of real time systems.
  • Motivate hybrid systems as a general modelling tool for embedded systems.
  • Analyze dynamic properties of hybrid systems.
  • Verify design specifications in hybrid systems.
  • Account for applications of the course content within several technical areas.

Course Disposition

Lectures and Exercises, written exam. See also

Literature and preparations

Specific prerequisites *

For single course students: 120 credits and documented proficiency in English B or equivalent.

Recommended prerequisites

Automatic Control, Basic Course, (EL1000 Reglerteknik allmän kurs) or permission by the coordinator.


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Information about course literature is announced on the course homepage.

Examination and completion

If the course is discontinued, students may request to be examined during the following two academic years.

Grading scale *

A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Examination *

  • HWK1 - Homework, 0.5 credits, Grading scale: P, F
  • HWK2 - Homework, 0.5 credits, Grading scale: P, F
  • HWK3 - Homework, 1.0 credits, Grading scale: P, F
  • TENA - Examination, 5.5 credits, Grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Based on recommendation from KTH’s coordinator for disabilities, the examiner will decide how to adapt an examination for students with documented disability.

The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

Opportunity to complete the requirements via supplementary examination

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Opportunity to raise an approved grade via renewed examination

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Dimos Dimarogonas

Ethical approach *

  • All members of a group are responsible for the group's work.
  • In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used.
  • In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.

Further information

Course web

Further information about the course can be found on the Course web at the link below. Information on the Course web will later be moved to this site.

Course web EL2450

Offered by

EECS/Intelligent Systems

Main field of study *

Electrical Engineering

Education cycle *

Second cycle

Add-on studies

EL2420 Project Course in Automatic Control,

EL201X Masters Degree Project Automatic Control


Dimos Dimarogonas

Supplementary information

Replaces 2E1245.

In this course, the EECS code of honor applies, see: http://www.kth.se/en/eecs/utbildning/hederskodex.