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EL2450 Hybrid and Embedded Control Systems 7.5 credits

Hybrid and Embedded Control Systems is a course on analysis, design and implementation of control algorithms in networked embedded and autonomous systems. Sensor, actuator and computer nodes are connected over a communication network in such control systems, which are found in emerging applications in robotics and autonomous systems, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, industrial control, mobile communication, power systems, smart buildings, transportation system etc.

About course offering


For course offering

Spring 2025 Start 14 Jan 2025 programme students

Application code



For course offering

Spring 2025 Start 14 Jan 2025 programme students


Dimos Dimarogonas


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Course coordinator

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Headings with content from the Course syllabus EL2450 (Spring 2021–) are denoted with an asterisk ( )

Content and learning outcomes

Course contents

The course covers time-controlled, event driven and hybrid control. Time-controlled regulation: modelling and analysis of sampled systems, computer implementation of control systems, properties and limitations of implementation platforms. Event-driven control real time operating systems, scheduling, modeling of computations. Hybrid control: models, dynamic properties, verification. In particular, the following is treated
•    Digital implementation of analogue controllers, computer coding for implementation
•    Analysis of basic properties, such as stability, controllability, observability for sampled systems
•    Analysis of limitations of embedded control systems, such as quantisation and communication limitations.
•    Analysis of basic properties of event-driven control systems
•    Simple dynamic modelling of real time systems
•    Motivate hybrid systems as a general modeling tool for embedded systems
•    Analysis of dynamic properties of hybrid systems
•    Verification of design specifications for a hybrid system
•    Application of the course content in several fields of engineering.

Intended learning outcomes

After passing the course, the student should be able to
·         formulate basic theory and definitions of important concepts in hybrid and embedded control systems
·         apply theory and methods in hybrid and embedded control systems.

Literature and preparations

Specific prerequisites

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Recommended prerequisites

Automatic Control, Basic Course, (EL1000 Reglerteknik allmän kurs) or permission by the coordinator.


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Examination and completion

If the course is discontinued, students may request to be examined during the following two academic years.

Grading scale

A, B, C, D, E, FX, F


  • HWK1 - Homework, 0.5 credits, grading scale: P, F
  • HWK2 - Homework, 0.5 credits, grading scale: P, F
  • HWK3 - Homework, 1.0 credits, grading scale: P, F
  • TENA - Examination, 5.5 credits, grading scale: A, B, C, D, E, FX, F

Based on recommendation from KTH’s coordinator for disabilities, the examiner will decide how to adapt an examination for students with documented disability.

The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

Opportunity to complete the requirements via supplementary examination

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Opportunity to raise an approved grade via renewed examination

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Ethical approach

  • All members of a group are responsible for the group's work.
  • In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used.
  • In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution.

Further information

Course room in Canvas

Registered students find further information about the implementation of the course in the course room in Canvas. A link to the course room can be found under the tab Studies in the Personal menu at the start of the course.

Offered by

Main field of study

Electrical Engineering

Education cycle

Second cycle

Add-on studies

EL2420 Project Course in Automatic Control,

EL201X Masters Degree Project Automatic Control


Dimos Dimarogonas

Supplementary information

Replaces 2E1245.

In this course, the EECS code of honor applies, see: