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Integrated Sensing and Communication in Cell-Free Massive MIMO

Time: Mon 2024-05-13 13.00

Location: Amiga, Kistagången 16, Kista

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Language: English

Doctoral student: Zinat Behdad , Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Intelligent Network Systems

Opponent: Professor Huseyin Arslan, Istanbul Medipol University, Türkiye

Supervisor: Associate Professor Cicek Cavdar, Kommunikationssystem, CoS; Docent Ki Won Sung, Kommunikationssystem, CoS; Assistant Professor Özlem Tugfe Demir, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara,Türkiye

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QC 20240513


Future mobile networks are anticipated to not only enhance communication performance but also facilitate new sensing-based applications. This highlights the essential role of integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) in sixth-generation (6G) and beyond mobile networks. The seamless integration of sensing and communication poses challenges in deployment and resource allocation. Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) networks, characterized by multiple distributed access points, offer a promising infrastructure for ISAC implementation. However, the effective realization of ISAC necessitates joint design and resource allocation optimization. In this thesis, we study ISAC within cell-free massive MIMO systems, with a particular emphasis on developing power allocation algorithms under various scenarios.

In this thesis, we explore two scenarios: utilizing existing communication signals and incorporating additional sensing signals. We propose power allocation algorithms aiming to maximize the sensing performance while meeting communication and power constraints. In addition, we develop two maximum a posteriori ratio test (MAPRT) target detectors under clutter-free and cluttered scenarios. Results indicate that employing additional sensing signals enhances sensing performance, particularly in scenarios where the target has low reflectivity. Moreover, although the clutter-aware detector requires more advanced processing, it leads to better sensing performance. Furthermore, we introduced sensing spectral efficiency (SE) to measure the effect of resource block utilization, highlighting the integration advantages of ISAC over orthogonal resource sharing approaches. 

In the next part of the thesis, we study the energy efficiency aspects of ISAC in cell-free massive MIMO systems with ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) users. We propose a power allocation algorithm aiming to maximize energy efficiency of the system while meeting communication and sensing requirements. We conduct a comparative analysis between the proposed power allocation algorithms and a URLLC-only approach which takes into account only URLLC and power requirements. The results reveal that while the URLLC-only algorithm excels in energy efficiency, it is not able to support sensing requirements.   Moreover, we study the impact of ISAC on end-to-end (including radio and processing) energy consumption. Particularly, we present giga-operations per second (GOPS) analysis for both communication and sensing tasks. Two optimization problems are formulated and solved to minimize transmission and end-to-end energy through blocklength and power optimization. Results indicate that while end-to-end energy minimization offers substantial energy savings, its efficacy diminishes with sensing integration due to processing energy requirements.