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Evaluation of Non-Metallic Inclusions after Deformation and Their Effect on the Machinability of Steel

Time: Fri 2022-03-25 10.00

Location: Sefström, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm

Video link:

Language: English

Subject area: Materials Science and Engineering

Doctoral student: SHUO GUO , Processer

Opponent: Robert Eriksson,

Supervisor: Pär Jönsson, Processer; Andrey Karasev, Processer; Anders Tilliander, Processer


The presence of non-metallic inclusions (NMIs) have critical effects on both the mechanical properties and machinability of steels. In the present thesis, one focus is to study the characteristics of deformed sulfides (MnS) for a stainless steel (3R65) and a tool steel (42CrMo4). Three groups of MnS inclusions were detected in the samples taken after deformation of the steel: i) type RS (sulfides with a Rod-like geometry), ii) type PS (sulphides with a plate-like geometry) and iii) type OS (oxy-sulfides). Here, the elongated inclusions present in both stainless and tool steels were studied more in detail using SEM to determine the tendency for the inclusions to break.  The results showed that three types of elongated MnS inclusions could be identified, namely UU, UB and BB. Here, ‘U’ represents the unbroken edge(s) of inclusion and ‘B’ represents the broken edge(s) of an inclusion. The presence of these three types of inclusions in samples collected both before and after a heat treatment was studied and the results showed that the heat treatment had a very small effect on the morphologies of the elongated MnS inclusions for both stainless steels (containing <0.1 mass % C) and tool steels (containing 0.42 mass % C). 

In the second part of the thesis, the characteristics of chips after machining of a 157REM Ce-treated steel and a 157C reference steel was studied. Furthermore, the effect of the NMIs on the chip breakability during machining was determined. The results show that a Ce modification of a 157C steel transforms the NMIs from large size elongated inclusions to small size inclusion with a spherical shape. This leads to an improved machinability of 157C steels. In addition, a newly developed weight distribution of chips (WDC) method, based on the chip weight measurements, was used to determine the tendencies for breaking of chips. The results of this investigation showed that the chips that were obtained from the machining of 157C and the 157REM steels could be classified into the following three types: i) type I chips (with a geometry containing one arc) and having a weight of less than 0.08 g, ii) type II chips (with a geometry containing two arcs) and having weights between 0.08 g and 0.15 g, and iii) type III chips (with a geometry containing three or more arcs) and having weights larger than 0.15 g. From industrial experience, it is known that a high amount of small type I chips will lead to a good chip breakability. The results from the machining test show that the fraction of type I chips from machining of the 157REM steel (65 %) is smaller than from machining of the 157C reference steel (80 %) when using a lower feed rate of 0.4 mm/rev. However, when using a higher feed rate of 0.5 mm/rev, 40 % of the chips belong to type I small chips for the 157REM steel and 14 % for the 157C steel. Based on the conditions used in this study and the obtained results, the following is clear in order to reach the best machinability: i) it is most advantageous to use the 157C steel when using a lower feed rate of 0.4 mm/rev and ii) it is most advantageous to use the 157REM steel when using a higher feed rate of 0.5 mm/rev.