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A note on 'e.g.', 'i.e.', 'such as', and 'etc.'

e.g. – such as – etc. – and so on

The abbreviation e.g. means ‘for example’:

(1) Many types of transactions, e.g. consumer-to-business and consumer-to-machines, are possible by the use of mobile wallets.

The phrase such as could replace e.g. in example (1) above.

Avoid ending a list with 'etc.' or 'and so on'

Avoid ending a list with 'etc.' or 'and so on' as in (2). This might give a vague impression. Instead, use such as or e.g., and add the word and before the final item on the list (as in example (1) above).

Redundant use of etc.:


Many types of transactions, such as consumer-to-business, consumer-to-machines, etc., are possible by the use of mobile wallets.


The abbreviation i.e. means ‘that is’ or ‘in other words’:

(3) Different kinds of transactions, i.e. consumer-to-business, consumer-to-online, consumer-to-machines and consumer-to-consumer, are possible by using mobile wallets.

After i.e. comes a list that clarifies what is meant by all types of transactions. This sentence means that there are four types of transactions, and they are all listed in the sentence. You cannot use such as in example (3), since it will give the sentence a different meaning.

Innehållsansvarig:Susanna Zeitler Lyne
Tillhör: Institutionen för lärande
Senast ändrad: 2023-06-02