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Writing references

In an academic text, references to other sources must be clearly stated. By referring to previous research, you show what information comes from other sources and what is your own contribution to the knowledge area.

Woman i front of her computer

Refering to past research gives recognition to other authors' research and ideas and creates credibility for your own work. Proper use of references also shows that you are familiar with your area and can use information from several different places to reinforce your arguments, discuss a case, or draw your own conclusions.

Avoid plagiarism and cheating

Using someone else's material without providing references is called plagiarism and is a type of cheating. To avoid committing plagiarism, always provide a source as soon as you make use of other people's research results, ideas or arguments.

Use uniform references

It is important that your references are written in a way that allows the reader to find the original material. Use the same reference style for all references in the document and make sure they are formatted in the same way.

Choose a reference style

There are many different reference styles. Find out what style is used in your subject area. Below you will find style guides for some reference styles that are common at KTH.

IEEE

Harvard

Using other peoples pictures

Two hands holding pictures

Most images are copyrighted and may not be used without the permission of the copyright owner. If you want to use someone else's image, table, or figure you must have permission. By searching for images in, for example, Creative Commons or Google's advanced image search, you can filter your search to different licenses that specify how the image may be used. You still have to write a reference where you state where you downloaded the image and who is the copyright owner.

If you do not find any information about who is the copyright owner of the image, you must contact the publisher or the publisher of the image. It is not legal to use images if a license and / or information about the author is missing.

Example of how a citation might look for a Creative Commons image .