Lise Meitner (1878–1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist in radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner, who was a Jewess, fled to Sweden from Austria in 1938.
When interpreting experiments conducted by Otto Hahn, in 1939, she launched the theory that nuclear fission occurs when uranium is exposed to neuron radiation. This discovery was fundamental to the utilization of nuclear energy.
Meitner lived in Sweden for 22 years, between 1938 and 1960, and she became a Swedish citizen in 1949. Otta Hahn received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944 for the discovery of nuclear fission, and many researchers believe that Lise Meitner should have share the prize with him.
In 1997, the element meitnerium was named after her.