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Course: Importance of Inclusions in the Processing of Steel Products – “Clean Steel"

The Unit of Processes at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering invites to this freestanding course FMH3905 for doctoral students and professionals.

Time: Mon 2022-12-12 13.00 - Wed 2022-12-14 12.00

Location: Room 243, Lindstedtsvägen 30C

Language: English

Participating: Andrey Karasev and several more


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  • Course code: FMH3905
  • For whom: Doctoral students in materials science and researchers working in the industry.
  • Course credits: 6 hp

Course Fees

  • Doctoral students at KTH: SEK 1000
  • Doctoral students, other universities: SEK 3000
  • Industry representatives and others not registered as doctoral students: SEK 9000

Course fee includes coffee (December 12 – 14), lunch (December 13 – 14), dinner (December 13) and printed lecture material.

Why a clean steel course?

It is of great importance to control the non-metallic inclusion composition during metal making in order to improve the material properties in various metallic materials, including iron-based alloys. Especially, in the steel field, the international conference “Clean Steel” has been held in Hungary since 1980’s. Here, both industrial and academic contributions have discussed different aspects of research and manufacturing of clean steel.

In addition, clean steel’s extension to “Ultra Clean Steel” has recently been discussed in Japan. Overall, it is clear that the processing techniques, including refining and casting, and the fundamental inclusion metallurgy need to be changed to meet the new more stringent demands on inclusion characteristics due to increased demand on steel properties. The course will discuss aspects related to process metallurgy, casting, metal working and material properties.

For whom?

Doctoral students in materials science and researchers working in the industry.

The doctoral students are required to both follow the lecture series and to carry out a separate project assignment. 

The researchers working in the industry do not need to carry out the project assignment. 

Sign up for the course


December 12

  • 13:00–13:10 Introduction to the first day of the course
    Associate Professor Björn Glaser

  • 13:10–13:50 Clean steel making in ladle and tundish metallurgy
    Professor Pär Jönsson, KTH

  • 13:50–14:30 Physical modelling and computational Fluid Dynamics modelling
    Adjunct Professor Dong-Yuan Sheng, KTH

  • 14:30–15:00 coffee break

  • 15:00–15:45 Physical modelling and computational Fluid Dynamics modelling
    Adjunct Professor Dong-Yuan Sheng, KTH

  • 15:45–16:30 Process control to obtain clean steel – exemplified by inclusion modification, digitalisation and on-line process control model for industry
    Associate Professor Björn Glaser, KTH
  • 16:30–17:15 Digitalization, big data and reactor design for future clean steel making
    Adjunct Professor Dong-Yuan Sheng, KTH

December 13

  • 08:00–08:10 Introduction to the second day of the course
    Docent Andrey Karasev, KTH

  • 08:10–09:30 Assessment techniques of inclusions
    Methods to detect inclusions:
    • Inclusion evaluation of solid steel sections: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Image Analysis (IA), Optical Emission Spectrometry with pulse discrimination analysis (OES-PDA), Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)
    • Inclusion evaluation of solid steel volumes: Conventional ultrasonic scanning (CUS), Chemical or Electrolytic extraction (EE)
  • 09:30–09:50 Coffee break
  • 09:50–11:00 Characteristic of inclusions after extraction
    Docent Andrey Karasev, KTH

    • Evaluation methods: Coulter counter analysis, Photo scattering method (Single-Particle Optical Sensing method), Laser-Diffraction Particle Size Analyser (LDPSA)

    • Actual inclusion characteristics (size distribution, shape & composition)
    • Statistical evaluation of the maximum particle size (extreme value distribution analysis)
  • 11:00–12:00 Lunch

  • 12:00–12:45 Thermodynamics for oxide formation in complex deoxidation
    Docent Andrey Karasev, KTH
    • Nozzle cloggingin submerged entry nozzles (SEN) – Industrial applications, laboratory-scale experiments & simulations
    • Inclusions and clusters in the steel melt and the clogged nozzle zone for different steel grades
    • Methods for investigations of clogged nozzle zones
  • 12:45–13:30 Nucleation and growth of inclusions in steels and the correlation with microstructure evolution
    Dr Wangzhong Mu, KTH
    • Nucleation and growth of inclusion in steels
    • Correlation between inclusion and microstructure evolution
    • In-situ characterization of inclusion evolution in the liquid and solid state steels
    • Characterization of nano-size inclusion by advanced instrumentations
  • 13.30–14:30 Thermo-kinetic models of inclusion evolution during steel refining and casting
    Associate Professor Qifeng Shu, Oulu University
    • Thermo-kinetic models of inclusion evolution during steel refining and casting by using thermodynamic packages and process model tools, e.g. FactSage macros, SimuSage, IDS, etc.
    • Models for the size evolution of inclusions based on the nucleation, growth and agglomeration.
  • 14:30–15:00 Coffee
  • 15:00–16: 00 Influence of casting on inclusions
    Dr Ewa Sjöqvist-Persson
  • 18:00 Dinner

December 14

  • 08:00–08:10 Introduction to the third day of the course
    Professor Stefan Jonsson, KTH
  • 08:10–08:50 Influence of deformation of inclusions
    Professor Stefan Jonsson, KTH
  • 08:50–09:30 Influence of non-metallic inclusions on material properties
    Olle Sundqvist, Alleima
  • 09:30–09:50 coffee break
  • 09:50–10:40 Methods to determine material properties related to inclusions
    Professor Stefan Jonsson, KTH
  • 10:40–11:00 Description of projects for graduate students and information of seminar
    Associate Professor Björn Glaser, Docent Andrey Karasev and Professor Stefan Jonsson, KTH
  • 11:00–12:00 lunch

For eligible doctoral students

Here is a brief summary of the course FMH3905 is given, for a complete description see the published course information on KTH Intranet.

Course content

Knowledge of i) thermodynamic and kinetic aspects which influence the inclusion characteristics during ladle treatment and casting, ii) methods for determination of inclusions, and iii) influence of inclusions on the final steel properties.

Learning Objectives

After completing the course, the student will have acquired a knowledge to evaluate:

  • Explain the methods that can be used to determine the inclusion characteristics in steel samples.
  • Identify the influence of inclusions on material properties.
  • Explain how thermodynamics can be used to predict the inclusion compositions in steel.
  • Explain the theories which can be used to predict the growth and separation of inclusions during steelmaking.
  • Identify the practice to make clean steel in production including in the ladle, tundish and mold.

Course Outline

Initially, lectures are given by both teachers from KTH and external experts from industrial companies. After this, the student may choose a project assignment that is performed under the supervision of an internal or external expert. The project assignment is presented at a seminar and in a report.


In addition to the lecture series, participants taking the course for credit need to carry out a seminar project (PRO1). Suggested project titles will be given during the course. The project results will be presented at a seminar, March 17, 2023.


Examination: PRO1 - Project 6.0 credits, grading scale: P, F


Sign up for the course


Questions regarding the technical content of the course can be directed to:

If you have questions regarding the course organization and practical details, please contact:

Belongs to: School of Industrial Engineering and Management
Last changed: Oct 18, 2022